This page collates links to scientific papers on the subject of transsexualism and transgender. Where non scientific papers have been included, eg Veale, it is because the author or the paper has achieved prominence in the debate. I accept suggestions for new links to include: please use the Contact Form below.
Ainsworth TA. Quality of life of individuals with and without facial feminization surgery or gender reassignment surgery. 2010. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20461468
To determine the self-reported quality of life of male-to-female (MTF) transgendered individuals and how this quality of life is influenced by facial feminization and gender reassignment surgery.
Transwomen have diminished mental health-related quality of life compared with the general female population. However, surgical treatments (e.g. FFS, GRS, or both) are associated with improved mental health-related quality of life.
Auer M K. Transgender Transitioning and Change of Self-Reported Sexual Orientation. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4192544/
Bakker A The prevalence of transsexualism in The Netherlands. 1993. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8488743
The prevalence of transsexualism in the Netherlands was estimated by counting all the subjects who were diagnosed as transsexuals by psychiatrists or psychologists and were subsequently hormonally treated and generally underwent sex-reassignment surgery. At the end of 1990, 713 Dutch-born transsexuals received treatment (507 men, 206 women). This amounts to a prevalence of 1:11,900 for male-to-female transsexualism and 1:30,400 for female-to-male transsexualism (population age 15 and above in both groups). The sex ratio was about 2.5 men to 1 woman. The most important reason for this relatively high prevalence seems to be the benevolent climate for the treatment of transsexualism in the Netherlands.
Bentler, P. A typology of transsexualism: Gender identity theory and data. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/22145678_A_typology_of_transsexualism_Gender_identity_theory_and_data
This paper pre-dates Blanchard and in it the authors describe three types of transsexual: homosexual, asexual and heterosexual. Blanchard was able to reconcile the two latter groups into one, autogynephilic.
Blanchard, R. Heterosexual and homosexual gender dysphoria https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01542067
This study investigated why more males than females complain of dissatisfaction with their anatomical sex (gender dysphoria). New referrals to a university gender identity clinic were dichotomously classified as heterosexual or homosexual. There were 73 heterosexual and 52 homosexual males; 1 heterosexual and 71 homosexual females. The average heterosexual male was 8 years older at inception than the homosexual groups. The heterosexual males reported that their first cross-gender wishes occurred around the time they first cross-dressed, whereas the homosexual groups reported that cross-gender wishes preceded cross-dressing by 3–4 years. Some history of fetishistic arousal was acknowledged by over 80% of the heterosexual males, compared to fewer than 10% of homosexual males and no homosexual females. The results suggest that males are not differentially susceptible to gender dysphoria per se, but rather that they are differentially susceptible to one of the predisposing conditions, namely, fetishistic transvestism.
Blanchard, R, The Concept of Autogynephilia and the Typology of Male Gender Dysphoria. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/20361233_The_Concept_of_Autogynephilia_and_the_Typology_of_Male_Gender_Dysphoria
This is paper sets out the basis of Blanchard’s typology. The appendix contains his questionnaires. One of the most important sentences in it is this:
‘the central prediction of the present study, namely, that autogynephilic behavior will be reported more frequently by non-homosexual than by homosexual gender dysphorics.’ (My emphasis.)
It has been the consistent attempt of Western autogynephilic activists to attack Blanchard for making what they call ‘generalisations’. That is a straw man. Blanchard, in all his papers, is careful not to go beyond the science. This is demonstrated here.
Blanchard, R The Classification and labeling of no nonhomosexual gender dysphorias. 1989 (pdf) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ray_Blanchard/publication/20483368_The_classification_and_labeling_of_nonhomosexual_gender_dysphorias/links/02e7e525d340ba3dd6000000/The-classification-and-labeling-of-nonhomosexual-gender-dysphorias.pdf
Perhaps the definitive paper by Blanchard on non-homosexual gender dysphoria, otherwise known as Autogynephilia.
Blanchard, R. A History of Autogynephilia (pdf) Blanchard- History of Autogynephilia
Blanchard, R. Typology of male-to-female transsexualism http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01542107
Blanchard, R. The classification and labeling of nonhomosexual gender dysphorias http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01541951
Blanchard R, Collins PI., “Men with sexual interest in transvestites, transsexuals, and she-males”
Blanchard R., “The she-male phenomenon and the concept of partial autogynephilia”
Blanchard R,et al. Comparison of height and weight in homosexual versus nonhomosexual male gender dysphorics. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01541833
Blanchard, R. Fraternal Birth Order and the Maternal Immune Hypothesis of Male Homosexuality. 2001. (pdf) https://labs.psych.ucsb.edu/roney/james/other%20pdf%20readings/Blanchard%25202001%2520Fraternal%2520birth%2520order%2520homosexuality.pdf
Blanchard, R. Review and theory of handedness, birth order, and homosexuality in men. 2008. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5798066_Review_and_theory_of_handedness_birth_order_and_homosexuality_in_men
Research has repeatedly shown that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This phenomenon has been called the fraternal birth order effect. The most highly developed explanation of this phenomenon is the maternal immune hypothesis, which proposes that the fraternal birth order effect reflects the progressive immunisation of some mothers to male-specific antigens by each succeeding male foetus and the concomitantly increasing effects of anti-male antibodies on the sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male foetus. Recent studies indicate that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in right-handed males but not in non-right-handed males. The present article explores how the maternal immune hypothesis might be extended or modified to account for the apparent interaction of older brothers and handedness. Two possibilities are considered: (1) non-right-handed foetuses are insensitive to the presence of maternal anti-male antibodies, and (2) mothers of non-right-handed foetuses do not produce anti-male antibodies.
Review and theory of handedness, birth order, and homosexuality in men (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5798066_Review_and_theory_of_handedness_birth_order_and_homosexuality_in_men
Blanchard R, et al. Sexual Attraction to Others: A Comparison of Two Models of Alloerotic Responding in Men 2010 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/46289344_Sexual_Attraction_to_Others_A_Comparison_of_Two_Models_of_Alloerotic_Responding_in_Men
The penile response profiles of homosexual and heterosexual pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles to laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children and adults may be conceptualized as a series of overlapping stimulus generalization gradients. This study used such profile data to compare two models of alloerotic responding (sexual responding to other people) in men. The first model was based on the notion that men respond to a potential sexual object as a compound stimulus made up of an age component and a gender component. The second model was based on the notion that men respond to a potential sexual object as a gestalt, which they evaluate in terms of global similarity to other potential sexual objects. The analytic strategy was to compare the accuracy of these models in predicting a man’s penile response to each of his less arousing (nonpreferred) stimulus categories from his response to his most arousing (preferred) stimulus category. Both models based their predictions on the degree of dissimilarity between the preferred stimulus category and a given nonpreferred stimulus category, but each model used its own measure of dissimilarity. According to the first model (“summation model”), penile response should vary inversely as the sum of stimulus differences on separate dimensions of age and gender. According to the second model (“bipolar model”), penile response should vary inversely as the distance between stimulus categories on a single, bipolar dimension of morphological similarity-a dimension on which children are located near the middle, and adult men and women are located at opposite ends. The subjects were 2,278 male patients referred to a specialty clinic for phallometric assessment of their erotic preferences. Comparisons of goodness of fit to the observed data favored the unidimensional bipolar model.
Blanchard, R. Fraternal Birth Order, Family Size, and Male Homosexuality: Meta-Analysis of Studies Spanning 25 Years. 2018. Archives of Sexual Behavior
The fraternal birth order effect is the tendency for older brothers to increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This study compared the strength of the effect in subjects from small versus large families and in homosexual subjects with masculine versus feminine gender identities. Meta-analyses were conducted on 30 homosexual and 30 heterosexual groups from 26 studies, totaling 7140 homosexual and 12,837 heterosexual males. The magnitude of the fraternal birth order effect was measured with a novel variable, the Older Brothers Odds Ratio, computed as (homosexuals’ older brothers ÷ homosexuals’ other siblings) ÷ (heterosexuals’ older brothers ÷ heterosexuals’ other siblings), where other siblings = older sisters + younger brothers + younger sisters. An Older Brothers Odds Ratio of 1.00 represents no effect of sexual orientation; values over 1.00 are positive evidence for the fraternal birth order effect. Evidence for the reliability of the effect was consistent. The Older Brothers Odds Ratio was significantly >1.00 in 20 instances, >1.00 although not significantly in nine instances, and nonsignificantly <1.00 in 1 instance. The pooled Older Brothers Odds Ratio for all samples was 1.47, p < .00001. Subgroups analyses showed that the magnitude of the effect was significantly greater in the 12 feminine or transgender homosexual groups than in the other 18 homosexual groups. There was no evidence that the magnitude of the effect differs according to family size.
Dr Ray Blanchard remains one of the most interesting researchers into sex and sexuality, after a career of over 40 years. He is generous of his time and will respond to requests for full pdf versions of papers not already available as such, for those who lack academic access to them. He can be contacted through his Researchgate page here: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ray_Blanchard
Bockting et al. Gay and bisexual identity development among female-to-male transsexuals in North America: emergence of a transgender sexuality. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19330439
Bogaert, Anthony F. The prevalence of male homosexuality: the effect of fraternal birth order and variations in family size 2004 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519304001584
Bullough, Vern L. Transgenderism and the Concept of Gender https://www.atria.nl/ezines/web/IJT/97-03/numbers/symposion/bullough.htm
Campbell, Natalie M. Nuclear family dynamics: Predictors of childhood crushes and adult sexual orientation 2015 http://mds.marshall.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1949&context=etd
Cantor, J M. New MRI Studies Support the Blanchard Typology of Male-to-Female Transsexualism. 2011. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3180619/
Two independent empirical articles have recently appeared in the literature that, taken together, bear out an hypothesis Blanchard (2008) postulated in the Archives about brain development in transsexualism:
[T]he brains of both homosexual and heterosexual male-to-female transsexuals probably differ from the brains of typical heterosexual men, but in different ways. In homosexual male-to-female transsexuals, the difference does involve sex-dimorphic structures, and the nature of the difference is a shift in the female-typical direction. If there is any neuroanatomic intersexuality, it is in the homosexual group. In heterosexual male-to-female transsexuals, the difference may not involve sex-dimorphic structures at all, and the nature of the structural difference is not necessarily along the male–female dimension. (p. 437)
Blanchard’s prediction follows from studies that have repeatedly shown that the homosexual male-to-female transsexuals are “female-shifted” in multiple, sexually dimorphic characteristics, whereas the heterosexual male-to-female transsexuals are not (Blanchard, 1989a, 1989b). For example, homosexual male-to-female transsexuals are sexually attracted to natal males, express greater interest in female-typical activities (even in childhood), and are naturally effeminate in mannerism. In contrast, heterosexual male-to-female transsexuals are indistinguishable from nontranssexual natal males on these variables. The heterosexual transsexuals are still distinct from typical males in other ways, however, such as by manifesting “autogynephilia”—the erotic interest in or sexual arousal in response to being or seeming female. The consistent detection of cross-sex features among homosexual male-to-female transsexuals, but not among heterosexual male-to-female transsexuals, led Blanchard to predict that the cross-sex pattern would also emerge at the level of brain anatomy and be limited to the homosexual male-to-female transsexuals. That prediction now appears to be the case, with Rametti et al. (2010) supporting his prediction for the homosexual transsexuals, and Savic and Arver (2010), for the heterosexual transsexuals.
The Rametti team used an MRI technique called Diffusion Tensor Imaging to compare homosexual male-to-female transsexuals (n = 18) with nontranssexual, heterosexual control males (n = 19) and with nontranssexual, heterosexual control females (n = 19). They contrasted the male controls with the female controls to identify the sex-dimorphic portions of the brain and then contrasted the homosexual transsexuals with each of the control groups on the dimorphic brain regions so identified. The initial contrasts identified six sex-dimorphic brain regions. The homosexual transsexual sample was intermediate in volume on all six brain structures, significantly different from the male controls on five of the six (and significantly different from the female controls on all six). That is, these male-to-female transsexuals were different from the control males, shifted towards the female direction on all parameters.
Savic and Arver (2010) applied anatomical MRIs with an analogous research design, identifying the sex-dimorphic portions of the brain and contrasting the (this time) heterosexual transsexual sample (n = 24) with each control sample (n’s = 24 each) on the sex-dimorphic brain regions. Of the eight brain regions that distinguished male from female brains, the heterosexual transsexual sample differed from the male controls on none (Savic & Arver, 2010, Table 3). Of the four brain regions that distinguished these heterosexual transsexuals from the male controls, sex-dimorphism was present in none (Savic & Arver, 2010, Table 3). As Savic and Arver themselves emphasized, “Contrary to the primary hypothesis, no sex-atypical features with signs of ‘feminization’ were detected in the transsexual group….The present study does not support the dogma that [male-to-female transsexuals] have atypical sex dimorphism in the brain” although that statement should have been restricted to refer to heterosexual male-to-female transsexuals only.
Also meriting emphasis is that—although these data disconfirm that the heterosexual type has a feminized brain pattern—the data nonetheless confirm that heterosexual transsexuals have a brain structure distinct from that of typical (nontranssexual) persons. Their gender identity is not a transient or ephemeral characteristic, but a likely innate and immutable characteristic, emerging from their particular brain structure.
Clemens, B. Male‐to‐female gender dysphoria: Gender‐specific differences in resting‐state networks 2017 (full) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5434195/
Recent research found gender‐related differences in resting‐state functional connectivity (rs‐FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs‐FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD).
Our results provide first evidence that MtFs exhibit patterns of rs‐FC which are different from both their assigned and their aspired gender, indicating an intermediate position between the two sexes. We suggest that the present study constitutes a starting point for future research designed to clarify whether the brains of individuals with GD are more similar to their assigned or their aspired gender.
De Vries et al. Clinical Management of Gender Dysphoria in Children and Adolescents: The Dutch Approach 2012. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223135170_Clinical_Management_of_Gender_Dysphoria_in_Children_and_Adolescents_The_Dutch_Approach
The Dutch approach on clinical management of both prepubertal children under the age of 12 and adolescents starting at age 12 with gender dysphoria, starts with a thorough assessment of any vulnerable aspects of the youth’s functioning or circumstances and, when necessary, appropriate intervention. In children with gender dysphoria only, the general recommendation is watchful waiting and carefully observing how gender dysphoria develops in the first stages of puberty. Gender dysphoric adolescents can be considered eligible for puberty suppression and subsequent cross-sex hormones when they reach the age of 16 years. Currently, withholding physical medical interventions in these cases seems more harmful to wellbeing in both adolescence and adulthood when compared to cases where physical medical interventions were provided.
Del Giudice, M. Joel et al.’s method systematically fails to detect large, consistent sex differences (in human brains.) 2016. (Letter) http://www.pnas.org/content/113/14/E1965.full.pdf
Dhejne, C et al: Long-Term Follow-Up of Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery: Cohort Study in Sweden 2011 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0016885
The treatment for transsexualism is sex reassignment, including hormonal treatment and surgery aimed at making the person’s body as congruent with the opposite sex as possible. There is a dearth of long term, follow-up studies after sex reassignment.
To estimate mortality, morbidity, and criminal rate after surgical sex reassignment of transsexual persons.
Persons with transsexualism, after sex reassignment, have considerably higher risks for mortality, suicidal behaviour, and psychiatric morbidity than the general population. Our findings suggest that sex reassignment, although alleviating gender dysphoria, may not suffice as treatment for transsexualism, and should inspire improved psychiatric and somatic care after sex reassignment for this patient group.
Dhejne, C. An Analysis of All Applications for Sex Reassignment Surgery in Sweden, 1960-2010: Prevalence, Incidence, and Regrets. 2014. (pdf) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Cecilia_Dhejne/publication/262734734_An_Analysis_of_All_Applications_for_Sex_Reassignment_Surgery_in_Sweden_1960-2010_Prevalence_Incidence_and_Regrets/links/57013cae08aea6b7746a7a65/An-Analysis-of-All-Applications-for-Sex-Reassignment-Surgery-in-Sweden-1960-2010-Prevalence-Incidence-and-Regrets.pdf
Dreger, Alice D. The Controversy Surrounding The Man Who Would Be Queen: A Case History of the Politics of Science, Identity, and Sex in the Internet Age 2008 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3170124/
Freund, K.Cross-Gender Identity in a Broader Context https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-4784-2_9
This chapter is a review of clinical and experimental studies that may suggest questions useful in research on the etiology of cross-gender identity (which is here conceived as an extreme form of masculine gender identity in females or feminine gender identity in males). The first section addresses itself to the typology of cross-gender identity and demonstrates that there are two main types, one occurring in homosexual, the other in heterosexual (or just nonhomosexual) persons. Next, the relationships among androphilia (an erotic preference for physically mature males), homosexual-type cross-gender identity, and feminine gender identity (in males) in general are explored. The second section investigates the feasibility of physiological hypotheses of homosexual cross-gender identity and discusses, in this context, relevant work on the development of gender identity in intersexes. The third section explores the relevance of animal studies to the problem of gender identity.
Freund K et al. Two types of cross-gender identity. 1982 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7073469/
A revision of the typology of male cross-gender identity was carried out by means of formalized, easily replicable methods. The results suggest (1) that there are two discrete types of cross-gender identity, one heterosexual, the other homosexual; (2) that transvestism, and closely related conditions of cross-gender identity, occur exclusively or almost exclusively in heterosexuals; (3) that of the two types of transsexualism distinguished in this study, type A is, in heterosexuals, very rare or completely nonexistent; (4) that (in the course of time) transvestites or borderline transsexuals (defined below) may develop sustained cross-gender identity, as observed by Stoller (1971); (5) that although, according to Hoenig and Kenna (1974), transsexualism by itself is not an anomalous erotic preference, it is (virtually) always either preceded by transvestism or accompanied by homosexuality or cross-gender fetishism.
Galis, Frietson. Sexual Dimorphism in the Prenatal Digit Ratio (2D:4D) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2811245/
Green et al. Specific cross-gender behaviour in boyhood and later homosexual orientation. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3676630
Guillamon, A, et al. A Review of the Status of Brain Structure Research in Transsexualism http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-016-0768-5
Gurven, M and Hill, K. Why Do Men Hunt? A Reevaluation of “Man the Hunter” and the Sexual Division of Labor http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/faculty/gurven/papers/gurvenhill2009.pdf
Hahn, A.et al Structural Connectivity Networks of Transgender People 2015 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article/PMC4585501/ Full paper
Hare et al. Androgen receptor repeat length polymorphism associated with male-to-female transsexualism.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18962445
There is a likely genetic component to transsexualism, and genes involved in sex steroidogenesis are good candidates. We explored the specific hypothesis that male-to-female transsexualism is associated with gene variants responsible for undermasculinization and/or feminization. Specifically, we assessed the role of disease-associated repeat length polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and aromatase (CYP19) genes.
A significant association was identified between transsexualism and the AR allele, with transsexuals having longer AR repeat lengths than non-transsexual male control subjects (p = .04). No associations for transsexualism were evident in repeat lengths for CYP19 or ERβ genes. Individuals were then classified as short or long for each gene polymorphism on the basis of control median polymorphism lengths in order to further elucidate possible combined effects. No interaction associations between the three genes and transsexualism were identified.
Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Changing your sex changes your brain: influences of testosterone and estrogen on adult human brain structure 2006 http://www.eje-online.org/content/155/suppl_1/S107.abstract
Objective: Sex hormones are not only involved in the formation of reproductive organs, but also induce sexually-dimorphic brain development and organization. Cross-sex hormone administration to transsexuals provides a unique possibility to study the effects of sex steroids on brain morphology in young adulthood.
Methods: Magnetic resonance brain images were made prior to, and during, cross-sex hormone treatment to study the influence of anti-androgen + estrogen treatment on brain morphology in eight young adult male-to-female transsexual human subjects and of androgen treatment in six female-to-male transsexuals.
Results: Compared with controls, anti-androgen + estrogen treatment decreased brain volumes of male-to-female subjects towards female proportions, while androgen treatment in female-to-male subjects increased total brain and hypothalamus volumes towards male proportions.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that, throughout life, gonadal hormones remain essential for maintaining aspects of sex-specific differences in the human brain.
Hsu, Rosenthal, Miller and Bailey, “Who are gynandromorphophilic men? Characterizing men with sexual interest in transgender women”
Italiano, M. Postsurgical Changes in the Neovagina. 1998.Transgender Treatment Bulletin. http://www.gendercare.com/library/italiano_paper1.html
Junger, J, et al More than Just Two Sexes: The Neural Correlates of Voice Gender Perception in Gender Dysphoria 2013 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25375171
Compared to men and women, MtFs showed differences in a neural network including the medial prefrontal gyrus, the insula, and the precuneus when responding to male vs. female voices. With increased voice morphing men recruited more prefrontal areas compared to women and MtFs, while MtFs revealed a pattern more similar to women. On a behavioral and neuronal level, our results support the feeling of MtFs reporting they cannot identify with their assigned sex.
Link to full article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877116/
Karwowsk, Maciej Greater male variability in creativity: A latent variables approach 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1871187116301407?via%3Dihub
Lagos et al. Regional Grey Matter Structure Differences between Transsexuals and Healthy Controls—A Voxel Based Morphometry Study. 2013. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0083947
Lawrence, A. Autogynephilia: A Paraphilic Model of Gender Identity Disorder.http://www.annelawrence.com/autogynephilia,_a_paraphilic_model_of_GID.pdf
Lawrence, Anne A. Autogynephilia and Heterosexuality 2012 https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-5182-2_7
Lawrence, A. Further Validation of Blanchard’s Typology: A Reply to Nuttbrock, Bockting, Rosenblum, Mason, and Hwahng (2010) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/50196878_Further_Validation_of_Blanchard’s_Typology_A_Reply_to_Nuttbrock_Bockting_Rosenblum_Mason_and_Hwahng_2010
Lawrence, Anne A. Clinical and Theoretical Parallels Between Desire for Limb Amputation and Gender Identity Disorder 2006 http://www.annelawrence.com/amputation-GID.pdf
Lawrence Anne A. Erotic Target Location Errors: An Underappreciated Paraphilic Dimension http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/20620414.pdf?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Based on studies of heterosexual male fetishists, transvestites, and transsexuals, Blanchard (1991) proposed the existence of a hitherto unrecognized paraphilic dimension, erotic target location errors (ETLEs), involving the erroneous location of erotic targets in the environment. ETLEs can involve preferential attention to a peripheral or inessential part of an erotic target, manifesting as fetishism, or mislocation of an erotic target in one’s own body, manifesting as the desire to impersonate or become a facsimile of the erotic target (e.g., transvestism or transsexualism). Despite its potential clinical and heuristic value, the concept that ETLEs define a paraphilic dimension is underappreciated. This review summarizes the studies leading to the concept of ETLEs and describes how ETLEs are believed to manifest in men whose preferred erotic targets are women, children, men, amputees, plush animals, and real animals. This review also describes ETLEs in women; discusses possible etiologies of ETLEs; considers the implications of the ETLE concept for psychoanalytic theories of transvestism and male-to-female transsexualism, as well as for the forthcoming revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; suggests reasons why the concept of ETLEs has been underappreciated; and describes what might result if the concept were more widely appreciated.
Lawrence, Dr Anne A. Erotic Target Location Errors are Easy to Mischaracterize: A Reply to Moser. 2009 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00224490903230061
Li et al. Childhood Gender-Typed Behavior and Adolescent Sexual Orientation: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study. 2016. https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1810/262671/Li_et_al-2017-Developmental_Psychology-AM.pdf
Little A C. Women’s preferences for masculinity in male faces are highest during reproductive age range and lower around puberty and post-menopause 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306453009003680
Lonsdor, Elizabeth V. Sex differences in nonhuman primate behavioral development http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jnr.23862/full
Sex differences in behavior and developmental trajectories in human children are of great interest to researchers in a variety of fields, and a persistent topic of discussion and debate is the relative contribution of biological vs. social influences to such differences. Given the potentially large effects of cultural and social influences on human child development, nonhuman primates are important model species for investigating the biological and evolutionary roots of sex differences in human development. This Mini-Review briefly summarizes the existing literature on sex-biased behavior toward infant nonhuman primates by mothers and other social partners, followed by a review of findings on sex differences (or lack thereof) in primate behavioral development from a variety of species in wild and naturalistic settings. These include differences in physical and social development, including play, grooming, and object manipulation patterns, as well as nursing and the development of foraging behavior.
Madison, Söderlund. Objectivity and realms of explanation in academic journal articles concerning sex/gender: a comparison of Gender studies and the other social sciences https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11192-017-2407-x.pdf (full text pdf)
Moser, C. Blanchard’s Autogynephilia Theory: A Critique http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00918369.2010.486241
Murad, M et al. Hormonal therapy and sex reassignment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes. 2009. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03625.x/abstract
Objective To assess the prognosis of individuals with gender identity disorder (GID) receiving hormonal therapy as a part of sex reassignment in terms of quality of life and other self-reported psychosocial outcomes.
Very low quality evidence suggests that sex reassignment that includes hormonal interventions in individuals with GID likely improves gender dysphoria, psychological functioning and comorbidities, sexual function and overall quality of life.
Nuttbrock et al. A Further Assessment of Blanchard’s Typology of Homosexual Versus Non-Homosexual or Autogynephilic Gender Dysphoria. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2894986/
Olson-Kennedy, J et al. Health considerations for gender non-conforming children and transgender adolescents. http://transhealth.ucsf.edu/trans?page=guidelines-youth
Paul, JP. Childhood cross-gender behavior and adult homosexuality: the resurgence of biological models of sexuality. 1993 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8505540
Research on the causes of homosexuality frequently treat it as a matter of disturbed gender identity and/or gender role. Recently, attempts have been made to link cross-gender behavior among boys with adult homosexuality. Often this research presumes a common biological determinant to both the childhood behavior patterns and homosexuality in adulthood. Authors have described such childhood cross-gender behavior in boys as part of a “prehomosexual” configuration. This paper argues that the research to date suffers from (1) a failure to differentiate such concepts as gender identity, gender role and sexual orientation, (2) a reliance upon potentially inappropriate dichotomies in describing such concepts, (3) problematic interpretations of research that makes few distinctions between human sexual behavior and sexual behavior among rodents, and (4) the contradictions implicit in seeking simple biological determinants of constructs (such as cross-gender behavior) that are culturally determined. The author argues that any potential biological factors contributing to sexual orientation must be mediated by a complex sequence of experiences and psychosocial factors. Therefore, the essentialists’ search for a simple congruence between physiological or biological traits and homosexuality may be expected to fail.
NOTE: This study ONLY tested homosexual transsexuals (HS). Non HS (AGP) trans were screened out. Its results DO NOT apply to these latter.
MtF transsexuals differed from both male and female controls bilaterally in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the right anterior cingulum, the right forceps minor, and the right corticospinal tract.
Our results show that the white matter microstructure pattern in untreated MtF transsexuals falls halfway between the pattern of male and female controls. The nature of these differences suggests that some fasciculi do not complete the masculinization process in MtF transsexuals during brain development.
Rieger G et al Sexual orientation and childhood gender nonconformity: evidence from home videos. 2008. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18194004
Homosexual adults tend to be more gender nonconforming than heterosexual adults in some of their behaviors, feelings, and interests. Retrospective studies have also shown large differences in childhood gender nonconformity, but these studies have been criticized for possible memory biases. The authors studied an indicator of childhood gender nonconformity not subject to such biases: childhood home videos. They recruited homosexual and heterosexual men and women (targets) with videos from their childhood and subsequently asked heterosexual and homosexual raters to judge the gender nonconformity of the targets from both the childhood videos and adult videos made for the study. Prehomosexual children were judged more gender nonconforming, on average, than preheterosexual children, and this pattern obtained for both men and women. This difference emerged early, carried into adulthood, and was consistent with self-report. In addition, targets who were more gender nonconforming tended to recall more childhood rejection.
Rieger G et al. Childhood gender nonconformity remains a robust and neutral correlate of sexual orientation: reply to Hegarty (2009). 2009. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18194004
In this issue, P. Hegarty (see record 2009-09998-015) comments on an article by G. Rieger, J. A. W. Linsenmeier, L. Gygax, and J. M. Bailey (see record 2007-19851-006) that compared videos of homosexual and heterosexual people from childhood and adulthood. The current authors claim it is reasonable to treat masculinity-femininity as a bipolar scale and present justification for the approach used in the earlier study. Measures used by Rieger et al. (2008) yielded large differences between homosexual and heterosexual participants, and these differences are likely to be more meaningful than the low and nonsignificant within-group correlations on which Hegarty chose to focus. The authors address his suggestion that they are working within a paradigm detrimental to the well-being of homosexual and gender-nonconforming individuals and suggest that greater openness to research such as theirs could have beneficial consequences.
Rieger et al. Sexual Arousal and Masculinity-Femininity of Women. 2015 http://www.researchgate.net/publication/283260585_Sexual_Arousal_and_Masculinity-Femininity_of_Women
Sexual Arousal and Masculinity-Femininity of Women (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283260585_Sexual_Arousal_and_Masculinity-Femininity_of_Women [accessed Feb 20 2018].
Roberts et al. The deep human prehistory of global tropical forests and its relevance for modern conservation 2017 https://www.nature.com/articles/nplants201793
Significant human impacts on tropical forests have been considered the preserve of recent societies, linked to large-scale deforestation, extensive and intensive agriculture, resource mining, livestock grazing and urban settlement. Cumulative archaeological evidence now demonstrates, however, that Homo sapiens has actively manipulated tropical forest ecologies for at least 45,000 years. It is clear that these millennia of impacts need to be taken into account when studying and conserving tropical forest ecosystems today. Nevertheless, archaeology has so far provided only limited practical insight into contemporary human–tropical forest interactions. Here, we review significant archaeological evidence for the impacts of past hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists and urban settlements on global tropical forests. We compare the challenges faced, as well as the solutions adopted, by these groups with those confronting present-day societies, which also rely on tropical forests for a variety of ecosystem services. We emphasize archaeology’s importance not only in promoting natural and cultural heritage in tropical forests, but also in taking an active role to inform modern conservation and policy-making.
Ruigrok, A et al. A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure. 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149763413003011
Savic, I et al.Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation. 2010 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21094885
A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus.
Sexton, L et al Where the Margins Meet: A Demographic Assessment of Transgender Inmates in Male Prisons http://ucicorrections.seweb.uci.edu/files/2013/06/A-Demographic-Assessment-of-Transgender-Inmates-in-Mens-Prisons.pdf
Smenenyna, S et al. The Relationship between Adult Occupational Preferences and Childhood Gender Nonconformity among Samoan Women, Men, and Fa’afafine. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301551770_The_Relationship_between_Adult_Occupational_Preferences_and_Childhood_Gender_Nonconformity_among_Samoan_Women_Men_and_Fa’afafine
Swaminathan, N. Study Says Brains of Gay Men and Women Are Similar; Brain scans provide evidence that sexual orientation is biological. Scientific American, June 16, 2008
Todd, B K et al. ‘Preferences for ‘Gender-typed’ Toys in Boys and Girls Aged 9 to 32 Months.’ 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/icd.1986/abstract
Veale, Clarke and Lomax, “Sexuality of Male-to-Female Transsexuals”
Wallien MS, et al. Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children. 2008 J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18981931/
OBJECTIVE: To establish the psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children at 16 years or older and to examine childhood characteristics related to psychosexual outcome.
METHOD: We studied 77 children who had been referred in childhood to our clinic because of gender dysphoria (59 boys, 18 girls; mean age 8.4 years, age range 5-12 years). In childhood, we measured the children’s cross-gender identification and discomfort with their own sex and gender roles. At follow-up 10.4 +/- 3.4 years later, 54 children (mean age 18.9 years, age range 16-28 years) agreed to participate. In this group, we assessed gender dysphoria and sexual orientation.
RESULTS: At follow-up, 30% of the 77 participants (19 boys and 4 girls) did not respond to our recruiting letter or were not traceable; 27% (12 boys and 9 girls) were still gender dysphoric (persistence group), and 43% (desistance group: 28 boys and 5 girls) were no longer gender dysphoric. Both boys and girls in the persistence group were more extremely cross-gendered in behavior and feelings and were more likely to fulfill gender identity disorder (GID) criteria in childhood than the children in the other two groups. At follow-up, nearly all male and female participants in the persistence group reported having a homosexual or bisexual sexual orientation. In the desistance group, all of the girls and half of the boys reported having a heterosexual orientation. The other half of the boys in the desistance group had a homosexual or bisexual sexual orientation.
CONCLUSIONS: Most children with gender dysphoria will not remain gender dysphoric after puberty. Children with persistent GID are characterized by more extreme gender dysphoria in childhood than children with desisting gender dysphoria. With regard to sexual orientation, the most likely outcome of childhood GID is homosexuality or bisexuality.
Watkins Christopher D. Creating beauty: creativity compensates for low physical attractiveness when individuals assess the attractiveness of social and romantic partners 2017. http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/4/160955
Weinberg MS et al. Men sexually interested in transwomen (MSTW): gendered embodiment and the construction of sexual desire.2010 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19544216
Winter S, Udomsak N (2002) Male, Female and Transgender : Stereotypes and Self in Thailand. http://www.transgenderasia.org/paper_male_female.htm
Winter S. Gender Stereotype and Self among Transgenders: Underlying Elements. http://www.transgenderasia.org/paper_gender_stereotype.htm
Winter S. Language and Identity in Transgender. http://www.transgenderasia.org/paper-languageandidentity.pdf
Winter S and King M. Well and Truly Fucked: Transwomen, Stigma, Sex Work and Sexual Health. http://www.transgenderasia.org/paper-wellandtruly.pdf
Winter, S. Transpeople (Khom Kham Phet) in Thailand. http://www.transgenderasia.org/paper-khonkhamphet.pdf
Wu-jing, He Gender differences in creative thinking revisited: Findings from analysis of variability http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886911003035
Zucker, K. et al. Physical attractiveness of boys with gender identity disorder http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01552910
Zucker, K J, et al. Sex-typed Behavior in Cross-Gender-Identified Children: Stability and Change at a One-Year Follow-up 1986 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002713810601148
Children referred because of concerns about their gender identity development were compared to their siblings on 4 sex-typed measures (15 variables) at both assessment and a 1-year follow-up. At assessment, the gender-referred children different from their siblings on all but one variable. At follow-up, the gender-referred children either maintained or significantly reduced their degree of cross-gender behavior; compared to their siblings, however, they continued to differ on the majority of measures. Degree of behavioral change at follow-up correlated positively with number of therapy sessions (child, parent, and total) and the child therapist’s emphasis on gender identity issues.